Glossary

An A to Z glossary of disabilities

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Glossaries

Term Main definition
sleep apnea
Glossaries - Disabilities
Glossaries Description -

An A to Z glossary of disabilities

A common condition where you have one or more pauses in breathing during your sleep which can occur more than thirty times per hour.

The disorder can disrupt your sleep patterns.

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sleep apnoea
Glossaries - Disabilities
Glossaries Description -

An A to Z glossary of disabilities

A common condition, also known as Obstructive sleep apnoea which relaxes the walls of the throat when the patient is sleeping making it difficult to breathe which dramatically affects sleep patterns.

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sleep paralysis
Glossaries - Disabilities
Glossaries Description -

An A to Z glossary of disabilities

A temporary inability to move or speak when you are waking up or falling asleep.

Most of us will experience sleep paralysis once or twice in our lifetime, but for some people the symptom can be recurring on a regular basis – For e.g. every couple of weeks.

The condition is more common in teenagers and young adults.

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Spasmodic Dysphonia
Glossaries - Disabilities
Glossaries Description -

An A to Z glossary of disabilities

Also known as laryngeal dystonia, the condition affects the voice by making it go into spasms. People with Spasmodic Dysphonia may talk with interruptions, gaps in their sentences and have a severe speech impediment.

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spastic diplegia
Glossaries - Disabilities
Glossaries Description -

An A to Z glossary of disabilities

Also known as Little’s disease, spastic diplegia is a form of cerebral palsy which triggers a tightness or stiffness in the muscles of the lower parts of the body, usually in the legs.

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spastic paraplegia
Glossaries - Disabilities
Glossaries Description -

An A to Z glossary of disabilities

A general term for a group of rare disorders which cause stiffness and weakness in the leg muscles.

Symptoms include weakness in the legs, increased muscle tone and stiffness, lack of sensation in the feet and urinary problems.

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Specific learning disorder
Glossaries - Disabilities
Glossaries Description -

An A to Z glossary of disabilities

Specific learning disorders are neurodevelopmental disorders that are typically diagnosed in early school-aged children, although may not be recognized until adulthood. They are characterized by a persistent impairment in at least one of three major areas: reading, written expression, and/or math.

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speech apraxia
Glossaries - Disabilities
Glossaries Description -

An A to Z glossary of disabilities

A motor speech disorder which makes it harder to speak.

People with the condition has trouble pronouncing what they are trying to say correctly and consistently because the brain pathways which helps us speak are affected by the neurological disorder.

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spina bifida
Glossaries - Disabilities
Glossaries Description -

An A to Z glossary of disabilities

Spina Bifida forms when the spine doesn’t develop properly, this process is called “neural tube defect”. The condition leaves a gap in the spine because the arches of bone, which surround the spinal canal, are unable to close properly. In more severe cases the spinal cord is also affected. The skin which forms over the bony arch in the spine can stay intact, but can also be undeveloped – leaving another gap.

The cause of spina bifida is unknown, although experts believe a lack of folic acid during pregnancy can put a child at risk of developing the condition.

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spinal muscular atrophy
Glossaries - Disabilities
Glossaries Description -

An A to Z glossary of disabilities

Spinal muscular atrophy –SMA – is a condition which weakens the nerve cells connecting the spinal cord and the brain to the muscles.

The muscles deteriorate affecting movements such as walking, sitting and crawling.

SMA falls into three categories ranging from Type I – the most severe to Type III. Type IV is only found in adults.

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spinal stenosis
Glossaries - Disabilities
Glossaries Description -

An A to Z glossary of disabilities

A condition which narrows the spinal cord which can cause back pain and nerve-related problems. The condition is more common in people aged 50 and older.

The most common cause of spinal stenosis is arthritis.

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Spondyloepiphyseal Dysplasia congenital
Glossaries - Disabilities
Glossaries Description -

An A to Z glossary of disabilities

A rare form of dwarfism which enlarges the spine and the area at the end of the long bones (epiphyseal)

The condition is heredity although in most cases children develop SEDc because of a new mutation or a change in a gene.

Symptoms incude a height between 35.5 – 49 inches, small mouth, curvature and rounding of the spine, back pain, neck problems, varus hips and knees, premature arthritis, respiratory problems and sight complications.

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Spondylolisthesis
Glossaries - Disabilities
Glossaries Description -

An A to Z glossary of disabilities

A spinal condition which causes one of the lower vertebrae to slip forward onto the bone positioned beneath triggering pain, although in most cases it can be treated.

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stammer
Glossaries - Disabilities
Glossaries Description -

An A to Z glossary of disabilities

People who stammer have difficulty ‘getting words out’, they may repeat syllables, extend the sounds of words or be unable to say the word. Those who stammer/stutter usually have problems at the start of sentences.

There are two forms of stammers. Developmental stammering, the most common type, starts during childhood when a youngster is learning to speak. Acquired/ late-onset stammering develops later in life after a stroke, head injury or a progressive neurological disease.

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stargardt disease
Glossaries - Disabilities
Glossaries Description -

An A to Z glossary of disabilities

An inherited condition of the retina [the tissue situated towards the back of the eye that senses light] which can cause vision loss in childhood or adolescence.

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